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Saturday, 28 October 2017

Religion among the Kodavas

- by Mookonda Kushalappa

Baalo, baalo nangada
Deva baalo Madeva


“Rule, our deity, Great God.”

This verse, which most Kodava folk songs begin with, summarises the Kodava religion. God, or the all-powerful superhuman who is pursued with devotion, is named Madeva (or Mahadeva), the great Deva. The Devas are a class of eternal beings who include gods, demigods, angels, spirits and other deities. Every sect or faith on this earth has its own beliefs. But, sadly, they are dismissed as superstitions by those who don't belong to that religion.


The Kodava way of living is based on the following of certain rituals and ethics. The laws and beliefs of the Kodava community are from oral tradition. Every Kodava reveres Kodagu, the holy land of their forefathers. In Kodagu, each family and village has a protector deity. The families are guarded by ancestral spirits. The villages are guarded by temple deities and land spirits.

God worship

God, to the Kodavas, is popularly manifested as the local trinity Kaveramme, Igguthappa, and Guru Karana. Kaveramme, the river deity of Kodagu, is the Kula Devathe (a community's patron god) of the Kodavas. Igguthappa is the Mahaguru (chief preceptor) of the community. Guru Karana, roughly meaning the supreme ancestor, is a common word by which an okka (extended family) addresses the single ancestor who gave rise to them.

Every okka (family) has a karana (literally meaning cause, but, here, the ancestor) every keri (hamlet) or oni (lane) has a nata (snake), every oor (village) has a Bhagwathy (mother goddess) temple, every deva kaad (sacred forest) has an Ayyappa shrine and every naad (shire) has a Mahadeva (Lord) temple. Ayyappa is the god of the forests and of ancestors. Kaimada shrines are also built for the ancestors.

Daily and festive practices

Every day, in each Kodava household, at dawn and at dusk, the house floor is swept clean and the prayer lamp is filled with oil and lit. The prayer lamp is usually a thookbolcha, a hanging ornate lamp, as often seen in South India's temples. This is hung in the nellaki nadubade or as in the present day, in the pooje kombare (prayer room). The nellaki nadubade is the northwestern corner of the central hall in a traditional house. Also, when a Kodava wakes up in bed, he or she says a prayer. When they go to sleep in the night, again they utter a prayer.

Kaveri Changrandi, the festival of the goddess Kaveri, is a festival when Kodavas refrain from meat and alcohol. Puttari the harvest festival and Kail Polud the festival of arms are the important feasts of celebration in Kodagu. Karana Kodupo is an important annual observance when offerings are made to a clan's ancestors. The food and drink habits of deceased members of the family are remembered. Accordingly, offerings are made to the dead. The Karana, or the dead Patriarch, is prayed to. Offerings of food and drink made to gods and ancestors are called Medi beppo. Offerings are made to kuliya, or Gulika, the main spirit of the land, as well.

Beliefs

Kodavas hold a reverence for life. Hunting animals was done only for the purpose of providing meat (that of rabbits, bats, deer, boars, and others) to the family or to protect the people, livestock and the land from predators (like tigers and elephants). During days that lead to the village temple festival, certain religious restrictions called the deva kattu are observed. Eating meat, consuming alcohol, physically or verbally hurting animals or humans, pulling out plants and cutting trees are forbidden in the period.

The reverence of cattle is said to be the chief practice the Kodavas have in common with the Hindus. Cattle, with the exception of buffaloes, are not worked on Mondays. Beef is prohibited among Kodavas. Pork and meats of certain birds and animals are generally allowed for consumption. The consumption of insects, reptiles, and amphibians is not allowed. Drinking alcohol and wine is not prohibited.


The dead are either cremated or buried in the family graveyard. The Kodavas believe that the spirits of the dead will linger on after death on earth. The spirits are also believed to be invoked by shamans who are called the thiralekara in theray ceremonies. The possessed dance in a frenzied manner and prophesize to believers who come before them. Botekara Ayyappa, the hunter god who rules the forests, leads the male spirits on hunts in the deva kaad (sacred groves).


Kodavas also believe in helping out others. During marriages and funerals, they come together to help organize the arrangements and to pool in their individual contributions in order to help the family carry the expenses.

(Update: This article was also published in the Kodagu English weekly "Coffeeland News" on 30th March 2018)

Wednesday, 25 October 2017

Achchu Nayaka

Ancient Kodava (Photo by Richter, 1870)
by Kushal Mucon (Mookonda Kushalappa)

The Haleri Rajas ruled Kodagu from around 1600 until 1834. Southern Kodagu, or Kiggat nad, remained outside Haleri control until the reign of Raja Dodda Virappa. Previously, Chittiappa Nayaka had ruled Anjigheri nad (‘nad of five villages’), Mathth Mukkati (short form for Maththur Mukkatira family name) Nayaka ruled over Maththur and Machangala (another form of Machangada family name) Nayaka ruled some other parts of Kiggat nad. 

According to the Kannada records, Chittiappa Nayaka belonged to the Katte family (manae) of Kiggatnad. The Kattera (long form of Katte family name) of Kiggatnad were an ancient Kodava clan. The Pattole Palame speaks of one Kattera Chengappa who helped build a temple to one of the 'Anji Deva' (five gods) of Kiggatnad. Likewise, there is a Kattemada family and a Katteyangada family in Kodagu's Kiggat nad. 

Periya patna (now in Mysore district) was under relatives of the Ikkeri Rajas and allies of the Haleri Rajas. Nanjunda arasa ('ruler') was the Raja of Periyapatna. Many Coorgs lived in Periyapatna at that time.

A feud arose between Chittiappa Nayaka and Machangala Nayaka. A tiger was killed in the forest, which bordered both their territories, and both claimed to have killed it. Chittiappa’s claim was widely accepted and so Machangala grew jealous. One night, along with his ally Mukkati Nayaka of Maththur, he had Chittiappa’s house burned down and it’s inmates killed. 

However, Chittiappa’s son Achchu was saved by the housemaid who then escaped to Periyapatna where she sought and obtained refuge. Nanjunda arasa became a mentor for Achchu and got him educated in his palace. Upon his coming of age, he returned home and with assistance from Nanjunda arasa he defeated and killed his two sworn enemies who had destroyed his family. Then he annexed their territories and established himself as the Nayaka of Kiggat nad. 

Achchu Nayaka later got a memorial built for his mentor Nanjunda arasa of Periyapatna. The Kattera line ended in Kiggat nad but branches of the family exist in other parts of Kodagu. Hence Achchu Nayaka's property went to his relatives the Ajjikuttira.

A number of Kodavas used to live in Periyapatna in those days. Later after Periyapatna was taken over by the Mysore Wodeyars, those Kodavas left that place and settled among the Kodavas of Kiggat nad. Hence the language and culture of Kiggat nad and surrounding parts have a slightly Kannada influence. The 'H' sound is largely absent in the Kodava language (which uses the 'P' sound instead) but present in the Kiggat dialect due to the Kannada influence. Hence Paal (milk) becomes Haal and Pann (fruit) becomes Hann in Kiggat. Otherwise Kiggat is the same as the rest of Kodagu. 

Bibliography:

  • Belliappa, C. P. 2008. Nuggets from Coorg History. New Delhi: Rupa.
  • Chinnappa, Nadikerianda. 2003. Pattole Palame (Translated by Boverianda Nanjamma and Chinnappa into English) Delhi: Rupa.
  • Chinnappa, N. 2006 [1924]. Pattole Palame (Kannada), Madikeri: Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Akademi.
  • Krishnayya, D. N. 1974. Kodagina Ittihasa (Kannada), Mysore: University of Mysore.
  • Moegling, Rev. H. 1855 Coorg Memoirs: An Account of Coorg and of the Coorg Mission, Bangalore: Wesleyan Mission Press.
  • Muthanna, I. M. 1971. The Coorg Memoirs (The Story of the Kodavas), Mysore.
  • Richter, Rev G. 1870 Gazetteer of Coorg Mangalore: Basel Mission.
  • Rice, B. L. 1914. Epigraphia Carnatica Vol 1. Madras: Madras Government Publications.




Monday, 23 October 2017

Karnataka's legislature and the Vidhana Soudha (a chronology)



Vidhana Soudha, the largest state legislature and secretariat building in India, is spread over 60 acres. Known as the ‘people’s palace’, it is built of Bangalore granite and porphyry. 

Princely Mysore
Bangalore first became the capital of Mysore State in 1831. The Bangalore Fort Palace was made the administrative building. But, later, the palace partly fell in, was deemed unsuitable and thereafter demolished. Hence, in 1868, the administration was moved into the Public Offices building inside Cubbon Park. This two-storied, Grecian building, surrounded by verandahs, was later to be called the Attara Kacheri, meaning 18 offices in Hindi. The name came because Mysore had 18 administrative departments. The British transferred powers in the Mysore State to the Maharaja in 1881. The State headquarters was moved back to the city of Mysore. That year, C V Rungacharlu, the then Dewan of Mysore, founded the first Representative Assembly of British India in Mysore. Thereafter, Bangalore’s Attara Kacheri came to the High Court of Mysore. 
The Assembly had 144 members, to begin with, and comprised landowners and merchants. It would meet twice in session every year at Jaganmohan Palace in Mysore. In 1891, the first Assembly elections were held for citizens above the age of 18. The Legislative Council was founded in 1907 with the view that it would assist the Government of Mysore in making laws and regulations. In 1923 the Legislative Council's strength was fixed at 50.  The term of each assembly member was fixed at three years.  While the semi-annual Assembly sessions continued to be held in Mysore, the budget session came to be held in Bangalore’s (K P Puttanna Chetty) Town Hall.
On August 15, 1947, Mysore was made part of the Indian Union. Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, once again. K Changalaraya Reddy was the first chief minister of Mysore State. The Assembly was held in the Library Hall of Attara Kacheri. This was continued until a separate hall was built on the third floor of the same building. The Council was also held on the third floor. The joint session of the two houses would be held in the Town Hall by the Rajpramukh, the Maharaja of Mysore. 
The need was felt for a separate and more spacious building. In 1948, the government wanted the chief engineer to construct a suitable office building. In 1950, the Constitution of India came into effect. Under the new constitution, the first Mysore Legislative Assembly was formed. It had 99 elected members and one nominated member. Mysore came to have a bicameral legislature, with two houses: the Vidhana Sabha lower house (Legislative Assembly) and the Vidhana Parishad upper house (Legislative Council).

Symbol of democracy
The 'House of Legislature' was first planned and decided by the KC Reddy cabinet. B R Manickam, a government architect and chief engineer, prepared the design. It was to have an Assembly hall for 200 members and a gallery for 500 visitors. It was also meant to accommodate a joint session of 261 members. In April 1951, plans for constructing the House of Legislature were ready. Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundation stone on July 13, 1951. 
A stone plaque,  now near the main staircase, was installed to mark PM Nehru's visit. A huge procession went out until Town Hall to welcome the then President of India Dr Rajendra Prasad.  In February 1952, the plans and estimates for the roof of the auditorium were conveyed by the legislature secretary to the government. In April 1952, Kengal Hanumanthaiah succeeded KC Reddy as the chief minister.
Hanumanthaiah dismissed the first design citing that the design was like that of a plain, American building. Meanwhile, members of a Russian delegation who were taken around the city stated that all the notable buildings in Bangalore were by Europeans. They further enquired whether there were no buildings that were designed and built indigenously. Subsequently, Hanumanthaiah travelled across the country to gain ideas on how to build an administrative structure. He started preparations for a building which combined the two legislative houses, the offices of ministers and government secretaries, a library, archive rooms, party rooms, etc. Funds were allotted in the 1952 budget and the work began in the same year.
Manickam led a team of engineers and architects from the state public works department. As many as 5,000 people were employed as unskilled labourers and almost all of them were convicts. Over 1,500 chisellers, masons and wood-carvers were also employed. The result was the neo-Dravidian Vidhana Soudha legislative building, completed in 1956. Later, President  Dr  S. Radhakrishnan came to inspect the place.  
On November 1, 1956, Coorg (Kodagu), as well as the Kannada-speaking parts of Bombay, Hyderabad and Madras were integrated with the old kingdom of Mysore to form the new Mysore State. This resulted in the elected assembly seats increasing from 99 to 208. The first sitting of the Legislative Assembly in the Vidhana Soudha happened on December 19, 1956. In 1973, the then chief minister D Devaraj Urs renamed Mysore State as Karnataka.

Elaborate patterns
Vidhana Soudha has 172 rooms, the largest among them is the chief minister’s office. The front portion has a 20-metre central dome with the four-headed lion capital of Maurya Emperor Ashoka above it. The main foyer has eight columns. Enclosed balconies, each called a jharokha, a traditional Rajasthani feature, are seen jutting forward from the walls. The top of the building has the motto ‘Government work is God’s work’ engraved upon it in Kannada and English. 
According to the Karnataka Shilpa Kala Academy, the Vidhana Soudha domes were designed by the Mysore royal family’s sculptor Sri Siddalinga Swamy and his son, Nagendra Stapathi. The pillars and the arches were chiselled by Nagendra Stapathi and his disciples. 
Floral designs, ornamental motifs and geometric designs decorate the walls and ceilings. Inspired by Dravidian temple art, the lotus and other floral patterns are distinct and have not been repeated. The inner passages also have floral designs. The wooden doors have fine details. Some of the pillars are of different colours. Most of the chisellers employed were highly skilled and were from Soraba and Sagara regions. Porphyry has also been used along with granite. Different coloured granite stones such as the Magadi pink and the Turuvekere black have been used.

The Building
The northern wing has a ground and three upper floors. The southern wing has a cellar floor, a ground floor and three upper floors. The central wing has a banquet hall on the ground floor and the Legislative Assembly Hall above it.
The Legislative Assembly Hall can seat 254 members and with some adjustments, it can accommodate 100 more members. Its visitors’ gallery has 500 seats. Teakwood panels enclose the hall. The ceiling is curved and is made up of acoustic material. Uniform illumination lighting is provided in order to avoid shadows. Ventilation is provided by an evaporative cooling system. The Cabinet room has a door made of sandalwood. The Speaker’s chair is made of Mysore rosewood. Every member has separate microphones and earphones whose master control is with the Speaker.  The Legislative Council Hall can accommodate 88 members. Its gallery can have 250 visitors. The Banquet Hall has an 800-seat capacity. The Secretariat accommodates ministers, secretaries and general staff.
With all these unique features, Vidhana Soudha is not just an epitome of democracy, but also an architectural wonder. The building is illuminated during the evenings on Sundays and public holidays. Entry is prohibited to the general public.  
In 2005 Chief Minister S. M. Krishna built the Vikasa Soudha as an annexe to the Vidhana Soudha. On 30th April 2016, an underground metro station was opened near Vidhana Soudha. This is named after Dr B. R. Ambedkar. It was constructed by means of carefully blasting the underlying rocks without disturbing the Vidhana Soudha and  Attara Kacheri premises. Karnataka has got 225 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) and 75 Members of the Legislative Council () today.

Celebrations
On October 25 and 26, this year, a two-day state celebration is being held to commemorate the diamond jubilee of the Vidhana Soudha. President Ram Nath Kovind will address a joint session of the Karnataka Legislature on October 25th. His 90-minute speech is on the Vidhana Soudha and Karnataka's contribution to the nation.  
Families of the first three Chief Ministers of Mysore - K. C. Reddy, Kengal Hanumanthaiah and Kadidal Manjappa will be honoured. Several people will receive the ‘Lifetime Achievement Awards’ for their contributions towards the development of the State.
Girish Kasaravalli’s documentary on the Vidhana Soudha and T. N. Seetharam’s documentary on the Karnataka Legislature will be screened. Master Kishan, former child artiste and director, will produce a 3D mapping and virtual reality show on the Vidhana Soudha. This will give viewers a 360-degree view of the structure. Grammy Award winner Ricky Kej and his team will present a musical symphony. The PWD will wash and renovate the Vidhana Soudha and also spend Rs.3.5 crore on the lighting alone.

The people's palace
Mookonda Kushalappa, Oct 24, 2017, 0:00 IST


(Tomorrow is the two day Diamond Jubilee celebration of the Vidhana Soudha.)
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